Provider Resources

Why Lifestyle change?

Certain lifestyle behaviors have been linked to decreased migraine severity and attack frequency, like consistent meal timing, quality sleep, and proper hydration. These and other modifiable lifestyle factors have been shown to further influence the chronicity of migraine. However, patients often encounter multiple barriers in identifying and implementing these changes, especially as they try to also manage migraine. We have designed the following resources to support you and your patients in learning more about the connection between lifestyle and migraine. 

For your patients

Stage of change has consistently been correlated with patient outcomes when implementing new healthy behaviors. Give our “How Ready Are You for Change” handout to help get them started.

For providers

  • Watch headache specialist Dr. William Young, MD, FAHS, FAAN, FANA explain why lifestyle choices are a crucial part of your patient’s toolkit (see video).
  • Read our Summary on the latest research on lifestyle and migraine.

Movement and Exercise


Behavior Change




Self- Awareness


Self- Efficacy


Movement and Exercise - (Es)

Lifestyle - (Español)

Behavior Change - (Español)

Sleep - (Español)

Nutrition - (Español)

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Behavior Change - (Español)

Sleep - (Español)

Nutrition - (Español)

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Provider Best Practices

See below for resources to help you support your patients in making lifestyle changes.

AAN Headache Quality Measurement Set

The recent American Academy of Neurology quality measurement in headache update includes the recommendation to assess and counsel patients regarding lifestyle factors associated with attack frequency and migraine severity. Check out our Lifestyle Changes for Migraine and other patient handouts, designed to help you help your patients better address those potentially modifiable risk factors as part of their comprehensive treatment plan.

Knowledge Portal

To help educate your patients, we also offer our free Knowledge Portal, a library of over 90+ accurate, understandable articles, videos, and audios on headache and migraine, which cover a vast range of need-to-know topics and are medically reviewed by our Co-Medical Directors. Click here to view our Knowledge Portal.

Smart Phrase

We know there are many demands on your time. To help you share Care Tuner resources with your patients, here is sample text you can use to create your own EMR smart (dot) phrase:

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Today we discussed using the Care Tuner app as part of our plan to provide you with comprehensive care for migraine. The app can serve as a complement to your treatment plan. The program provides personalized recommendations for you, including integrated, evidenced-based tools for improving your quality of life with migraine. We encourage you to make use of these tools as a regular part of your health routine in between our visits. 

The Care Tuner app offers a 2-week free trial. After that period, subscription fees apply. To download the app, visit:

You may also wish to explore the free Knowledge Portal, where you will find articles and answers to your frequently asked questions about headache and migraine:

To explore verified nutritional support for migraine, visit the shop at:

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In developing our programs and mobile app, we drew upon over 150 journal articles and references. We have compiled them below for your review.

Care Tuner References

Health Behavior Change

Bond, MR. Psychological issues in cancer and non-cancer conditions. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand., 2001;45(9):1095-1099.

Gardner, B., Lally, P., & Wardle, J. (2012). Making health habitual: the psychology of ‘habit-formation’ and general practice. The British Journal Of General Practice: The Journal Of The Royal College Of General Practitioners, 62(605), 664–666. 

Haddock, G., & Maio, G. R. (Eds.). (2004). Contemporary perspectives on the psychology of attitudes. New York: Psychology Press.

Hardcastle, S. J., Hancox, J., Hattar, A., Maxwell-Smith, C., Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C., & Hagger, M. S. (2015). Motivating the unmotivated: how can health behavior be changed in those unwilling to change? Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 835.

Jensen, MP., Karoly, P. (1991). Control beliefs, coping efforts, and adjustment to chronic pain. J Consult Clin Psychol., 59(3):431-438.

Lally, P., van Jaarsveld, CHM., Potts, HWW., Wardle, J. (2010). How are habits formed: modelling habit formation in the real world. Euro J Soc Psychol., 40:998–1009.

Additional resource:


Sleep Disorders and Headache. American Migraine Foundation.

Biddle, DJ., et al. (2019). Insomnia symptoms and short sleep duration predict trajectory of mental health symptoms. Sleep Medicine, 54,53-61. 

Buysse, DJ. (2014). Sleep health: can we define it? Does it matter? SLEEP, 37(1):9-17.

Calhoun. AH., Ford, S. (2007). Behavioral sleep modification may revert transformed migraine to episodic migraine. Headache, 47(8):1178–1183.

Houle, TT., et al. (2012). Stress and sleep duration predict headache severity in chronic headache sufferers. Pain, 153(12):2432–2440.

Kelman, L., Rains, JC. (2005). Headache and sleep: examination of sleep patterns and complaints in a large clinical sample of migraineurs. Headache, 45(7):904–910.

Koffel, E., Kroenke, K., Bair, M. J., Leverty, D., Polusny, M. A., & Krebs, E. E. (2016). The bidirectional relationship between sleep complaints and pain: Analysis of data from a randomized trial. Health Psychology, 35(1), 41–49.

Moldofsky, H. (2001). Sleep and pain. Sleep Med Rev., 5:385‐396.

Munch, M., Bromundt, V. (2012). Light and chronobiology: implications for health and disease. Dialogues Clin Neurosci, 14(4):448–453.

Ohayon, MM. (2005). Relationship between chronic painful physical condition and insomnia. J Psychiatr Res., 39:151‐159.

Sarabdjitsingh, RA., et al. (2010). Recovery from disrupted ultradian glucocorticoid rhythmicity reveals a dissociation between hormonal and behavioural stress responsiveness. J Neuroendocrinol, 22(8):862–871.

Woldeamanuel, Y.W. & Cowan, RP. (2016). The impact of regular lifestyle behavior in migraine: a prevalence case–referent study. J Neurol, 263:669–676.


Nutrition Strategies for Migraine:

Level of Evidence

Strategy Well-Supported Promising Practice-Driven
Food Journal  x
          Building Quality
Anti-Inflammatory Diet x
Anti-Inflammatory Fats x
Weight Management x
            Building Balance
Blood Sugar Balance x
Macronutrient Balance x
Gut Microbiome Support x
            Building Consistency
Meal Timing x
Modulating Caffeine x

Abu-Salameh, I., Plakht, Y., & Ifergane, G. (2010). Migraine exacerbation during Ramadan fasting. The Journal Of Headache And Pain, 11(6), 513–517.

Antonova M, Wienecke T, Olesen J, Ashina M. (2013). Prostaglandins in migraine: update. Curr Opin Neurol., 26(3):269‐275. 

Aparicio‐Soto, M., Redhu, D., Sánchez‐Hidalgo, M., Fernández‐Bolaños, J. G., Alarcón‐de‐la‐Lastra, C., Worm, M., & Babina, M. (2019). Olive‐Oil‐Derived Polyphenols Effectively Attenuate Inflammatory Responses of Human Keratinocytes by Interfering with the NF‐κB Pathway. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 1900019.

Balan, M., & Locke, M. (2011). Acute exercise activates myocardial nuclear factor kappa B. Cell Stress & Chaperones16(1), 105–111. 

Barbanti P, Fofi L, Aurilia C, Egeo G, Caprio M. (2017). Ketogenic diet in migraine: rationale, findings and perspectives. Neurol Sci., 38(Suppl 1):111-115.

Bigal, ME., Rapoport, AM. (2012). Obesity and chronic daily headache. Curr Pain Headache Rep, 16(1):101–109.

Bond, D. S., Vithiananthan, S., Nash, J. M., Thomas, J. G., & Wing, R. R. (2011). Improvement of migraine headaches in severely obese patients after bariatric surgery. Neurology76(13), 1135–1138. 

Brown, R. (1994). An Introduction to Neuroendocrinology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bunner, AE., Agarwal U., Gonzales, JF., Valente, F., Barnard, ND. (2014). Nutrition intervention for migraine: a randomized crossover trial. J Headache Pain, 15(1):69. Published 2014 Oct 23.

Dalton, K. (1975). Food intake prior to a migraine attack–study of 2,313 spontaneous attacks. Headache, 15(3):188‐193. 

Derry, CJ., Derry, S., Moore, RA. (2012). Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant for acute pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (3):CD009281. Published 2012 Mar 14.

De Souza, R. G. M., Gomes, A. C., Navarro, A. M., Cunha, L. C. da, Silva, M. A. C., Junior, F. B., & Mota, J. F. (2019). Baru Almonds Increase the Activity of Glutathione Peroxidase in Overweight and Obese Women: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients, 11(8), 1750. 

Dexter, J. D., Roberts, J., & Byer, J. A. (1978). The Five Hour Glucose Tolerance Test and Effect of Low Sucrose Diet in Migraine. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 18(2), 91–94. 

Di Clemente, L., Coppola, G., Magis, D., et al. (2009). Nitroglycerin sensitises in healthy subjects CNS structures involved in migraine pathophysiology: evidence from a study of nociceptive blink reflexes and visual evoked potentials. Pain, 144(1-2):156‐161. 

Edvinsson, L., Haane, KA., Warfvinge, K., Krause, DN. (2018). CGRP as the target of new migraine therapies—successful translation from bench to clinic. Nat Rev Neurol, 14(6):338.

Feigen LP. (1981). Actions of prostaglandins in peripheral vascular beds. Fed Proc., 40(7):1987‐1990.

Finocchi, C., & Sivori, G. (2012). Food as trigger and aggravating factor of migraine. Neurological Sciences, 33(S1), 77–80. 

Ford, ES., Li, C., Pearson, WS., Zhao, G., Strine, TW., Mokdad, AH. (2018). Body mass index and headaches: findings from a national sample of US adults. Cephalalgia. 28(12):1270‐1276.

Ghandadi, M., & Sahebkar, A. (2017). Curcumin: An Effective Inhibitor of Interleukin-6. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 23(6), 921–931. 

Gomez, I., Foudi, N., Longrois, D., Norel, X. (2013). The role of prostaglandin E2 in human vascular inflammation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 89(2-3):55‐63.

Greene, J., Hibbard, J. H., Alvarez, C., & Overton, V. (2016). Supporting Patient Behavior Change: Approaches Used by Primary Care Clinicians Whose Patients Have an Increase in Activation Levels. Annals of Family Medicine, 14(2), 148–154.

Gunay, Y., Jamal, M., Capper, A., Eid, A., Heitshusen, D., Samuel, I. (2013). Roux-en-Y gastric bypass achieves substantial resolution of migraine headache in the severely obese: 9-year experience in 81 patients. Surg Obes Relat Dis., 9(1):55‐62. 

Harel, Z., Gascon, G., Riggs, S., Vaz, R., Brown, W., & Exil, G. (2002). Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the management of recurrent migraines in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31(2), 154–161. 

Hartman, TJ., Albert, PS., Zhang Z., Bagshaw, D., Kris-Etherton, PM., Ulbrecht, J., et al. (2009). Consumption of a legume-enriched, low-glycemic index diet is associated with biomarkers of insulin resistance and inflammation among men at risk for colorectal Cancer1. J Nutr, 140(1):60–67

Hashemzadeh, M., Rahimi, A., Zare-Farashbandi, F., Alavi-Naeini, A. M., & Daei, A. (2019). Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavioral Change: A Systematic Review. Iranian Journal Of Nursing And Midwifery Research, 24(2), 83–90. 

Hering-Hanit, R., Gadoth, N. (2003). Caffeine-induced headache in children and adolescents. Cephalalgia. 23(5):332‐335.

Hills, R. D., Jr, Pontefract, B. A., Mishcon, H. R., Black, C. A., Sutton, S. C., & Theberge, C. R. (2019). Gut Microbiome: Profound Implications for Diet and Disease. Nutrients, 11(7), 1613.

Hoshiyama, M., Li, B., Yao, J., Harada, T., Morioka, T., Oite, T. (2003). Effect of high glucose on nitric oxide production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression in human glomerular endothelial cells. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 95(2):e62‐e68. 

Irwin, M. R., Wang, M., Ribeiro, D., Cho, H. J., Olmstead, R., Breen, E. C., Martinez-Maza, O., & Cole, S. (2008). Sleep loss activates cellular inflammatory signaling. Biological psychiatry64(6), 538–540. 

Jacobs, B., & Dussor, G. (2016). Neurovascular contributions to migraine: Moving beyond vasodilation. Neuroscience338, 130–144.

Jahromi, SR., Abolhassani, M., Meysamie, A, Togha, M. (2013). The effect of body fat mass and fat free mass on migraine headache. Iran J Neurol, 12(1):23–27.

Joseph, S. V., Edirisinghe, I., & Burton-Freeman, B. M. (2014). Berries: Anti-inflammatory Effects in Humans. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(18), 3886–3903. 

Kelman, L. (2007). The triggers or precipitants of the acute migraine attack. Cephalalgia. 27:394-402.

Lakkakula, A., Geaghan, J., Zanovec, M., Pierce, S., Tuuri, G. (2010). Repeated taste exposure increases liking for vegetables by low-income elementary school children. Appetite. 55(2):226‐231. 

Lee, M. J., Choi, H. A., Choi, H., & Chung, C. S. (2016). Caffeine discontinuation improves acute migraine treatment: a prospective clinic-based study. the Journal Of Headache And Pain17(1), 71. 

Lee, J., Jo, D.-G., Park, D., Chung, H. Y., & Mattson, M. P. (2014). Adaptive Cellular Stress Pathways as Therapeutic Targets of Dietary Phytochemicals: Focus on the Nervous System. Pharmacological Reviews, 66(3), 815–868. 

Lee, SH., Lee, JJ., Kwon, Y., Kim, JH., Sohn, JH. (2017). Clinical implications of associations between headache and gastrointestinal disorders: a study using the Hallym Smart Clinical Data Warehouse. Front Neurol., 8:526.

Levy, M., Thaiss, C. A., & Elinav, E. (2016). Metabolites: messengers between the microbiota and the immune system. Genes & Development, 30(14), 1589–1597.

 Liang, JF., Wang, SJ. (2014). Hypnic headache: a review of clinical features, therapeutic options and outcomes. Cephalalgia. 34(10):795‐805. 

 Lippi, G., Mattiuzzi, C., Cervellin, G. (2014). C-reactive protein and migraine. Facts or speculations? Clin Chem Lab Med. 52(9):1265‐1272. 

Maldonado-Rojas, W., & Olivero-Verbel, J. (2011). Potential interaction of natural dietary bioactive compounds with COX-2. Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling, 30, 157–166.

Mancuso P. The role of adipokines in chronic inflammation. Immunotargets Ther. 2016;5:47-56

Manfield, J.H., Yu, K.K., Efthimiou, E., et al. (2017). Bariatric Surgery or Non-surgical Weight Loss for Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension? A Systematic Review and Comparison of Meta-analyses. OBES SURG 27, 513–521.

Maniyar, F. H., Sprenger, T., Monteith, T., Schankin, C., & Goadsby, P. J. (2013). Brain activations in the premonitory phase of nitroglycerin-triggered migraine attacks. Brain, 137(1), 232–241. 

Bigal, ME., Liberman, JN., Lipton, RB. (2006).  A population study. Neurology, 66(4), 545-550.

Mashhadi, N. S., Ghiasvand, R., Askari, G., Hariri, M., Darvishi, L., & Mofid, M. R. (2013). Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of ginger in health and physical activity: review of current evidence. International journal of preventive medicine, 4(Suppl 1), S36-42.

Neeb, L., Hellen, P., Boehnke, C., Hoffmann, J., Schuh-Hofer, S., Dirnagl, U., & Reuter, U. (2011). IL-1β stimulates COX-2 dependent PGE₂ synthesis and CGRP release in rat trigeminal ganglia cells. PloS one6(3), e17360. 

Parantainen, J., Vapaatalo, H., Hokkanen, E. (1985). Relevance of prostaglandins in migraine. Cephalalgia, 5 Suppl 2:93‐97. 

Pardutz, A., & Schoenen, J. (2010). NSAIDs in the Acute Treatment of Migraine: A Review of Clinical and Experimental Data. Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland)3(6), 1966–1987. 

Park, JY., Pillinger, MH., Abramson, SB. (2006). Prostaglandin E2 synthesis and secretion: the role of PGE2 synthases. Clin Immunol. 119(3):229‐240. 

Pearce, J. (1971). Insulin induced hypoglycaemia in migraine. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 34(2), 154–156. 

Popko, K., Gorska, E., Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, A., Plywaczewski, R., Stoklosa, A., Gorecka, D., et al. (2010). Proinflammatory cytokines Il-6 and TNF-α and the development of inflammation in obese subjects. Euro J Med Res, 15(Suppl 2):120–122

Pradhan, AA., Bertels, Z., Akerman, S. (2018). Targeted Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors for Migraine. Neurotherapeutics, 15(2):391‐401. 

Ramsden CE, Fauroy KR, Zamora D, et al. Targeted alteration of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for the treatment of chronic headaches: A randomized trial. Pain, 2013, 154: 2441-2451.

Razeghi Jahromi, S., Ghorbani, Z., Martelletti, P. et al. (2019). Association of diet and headache. J Headache Pain, 20, 106. 

Recober, A., & Goadsby, P. J. (2010). Calcitonin gene-related peptide: A molecular link between obesity and migraine? Drug news & perspectives23(2), 112–117. 

Scher, A., Stewart, W., Ricci, J., Lipton, R. (2003). Factors associated with the onset and remission of chronic daily headache in a population-based study. Pain, 106(1–2):81–89.

Scher, A. I., Stewart, W. F., & Lipton, R. B. (2004). Caffeine as a risk factor for chronic daily headache: A population-based study. Neurology, 63(11), 2022–2027. 

Silberstein, S., Tepper, S., Brandes, J., Diamond, M., Goldstein, J., Winner, P., Venkatraman, S. , Vrijens, F., Malbecq, W., Lines, C., Visser, W. H., Reines, S., Yuen, E. (2004). Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of rofecoxib in the acute treatment of migraine. Neurology, 62 (9) 1552-1557.

Slavin, M., Li, H., Frankenfeld, C. and Cheskin, L.J. (2019). What is Needed for Evidence‐Based Dietary Recommendations for Migraine: A Call to Action for Nutrition and Microbiome Research. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 59: 1566-1581. 

Stuehr, DJ. Enzymes of the L-arginine to nitric oxide pathway. (2004). J Nutr. 134(10 Suppl):2748S‐2767S. 

Tai, M. S., Yap, J. F., & Goh, C. B. (2018). Dietary trigger factors of migraine and tension-type headache in a South East Asian country. Journal of Pain Research11, 1255–1261. 

Tietjen, G. E., Khubchandani, J., Herial, N., Palm-Meinders, I. H., Koppen, H., Terwindt, G. M., van Buchem, M. A., Launer, L. J., Ferrari, M. D., & Kruit, M. C. (2018). Migraine and vascular disease biomarkers: A population-based case-control study. cephalalgia : An International Journal Of Headache38(3), 511–518. 

Torelli, P., Evangelista, A., Bini, A., Castellini, P., Lambru, G., Manzoni, GC. (2009). Fasting headache: a review of the literature and new hypotheses. Headache. 2009;49(5):744‐752.

Turner, DP., Smitherman, TA., Penzien, DB., Porter, JA., Martin, VT., Houle, TT. (2014). Nighttime snacking, stress, and migraine activity. J Clin Neurosci., 21(4):638‐643. 

Tzeng, SF., Hsiao, HY., Mak, OT. (2005). Prostaglandins and cyclooxygenases in glial cells during brain inflammation. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy. 4(3):335‐340. 

Vadell, AKE., Bärebring, L., Hulander, E., Gjertsson, I., Lindqvist, HM., Winkvist, A. (2020). Anti-inflammatory Diet In Rheumatoid Arthritis (ADIRA)-a randomized, controlled crossover trial indicating effects on disease activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2020;nqaa019. 

Vasquez, A. (2006). Therapeutic Nutrition and Botanical Medicines for the Promotion of Wellness and Alleviation of Pain and Inflammation: A Detailed Review for Integrative Clinicians.

Zhang DG, Amin FM, Guo S, Vestergaard MB, Hougaard A, Ashina M. (2020). Plasma Glucose Levels Increase During Spontaneous Attacks of Migraine With and Without Aura. Headache, 60(4):655‐664. 

 Zhu, L., Ni, H., Chen, R., Chang, L., Shi, H., Qiu, D., … Zhu, D. (2018). Hippocampal nuclear factor kappa B accounts for stress‐induced anxiety behaviors via enhancing neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)‐carboxy‐terminal PDZ ligand of nNOS‐Dexras1 coupling. Journal of Neurochemistry, 146(5), 598–612. 



American Council for Headache Education (2013, updated). Dehydration: An Avoidable Migraine Trigger.

Blau, JN., Kell, CA., Sperling, JM. (2004). Water-deprivation headache: a new headache with two variants. Headache. 44(1):79-83. 

El-Sharkawy, A. M., Sahota, O., Maughan, R. J., & Lobo, D. N. (2014). The pathophysiology of fluid and electrolyte balance in the older adult surgical patient. Clinical Nutrition, 33(1), 6–13. 

Krause’s Food and the Nutrition Care Process Mahan, K. L. et. al. Elsevier, 2012.

Perrier, E. T., Johnson, E. C., McKenzie, A. L., Ellis, L. A., & Armstrong, L. E. (2016). Urine colour change as an indicator of change in daily water intake: a quantitative analysis. European Journal of Nutrition55(5), 1943–1949. 

Popkin, B. M., D’Anci, K. E., & Rosenberg, I. H. (2010). Water, hydration, and health. Nutrition Reviews68(8), 439–458. 

Shaheen, N. A., Alqahtani, A. A., Assiri, H., Alkhodair, R., & Hussein, M. A. (2018). Public knowledge of dehydration and fluid intake practices: variation by participants’ characteristics. BMC Public Health18(1), 1346. 

Spigt, M. G., Kuijper, E. C., Schayck, C. P., Troost, J., Knipschild, P. G., Linssen, V. M., & Knottnerus, J. A. (2005). Increasing the daily water intake for the prophylactic treatment of headache: a pilot trial. European Journal of Neurology, 12(9), 715-718.

Vivanti, A. P. (2012). Origins for the estimations of water requirements in adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66(12), 1282–1289. 

Zhang, N., Du, S., Zheng, M., et al. (2017). Urine color for assessment of dehydration among college men students in Hebei, China – a cross-sectional study. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 26(5):788-793. 

Additional Resources:


Ali M, Nas FS. Exercise for the management and treatment of cervicogenic headache: a narrative review. MOJ Yoga Physical Ther. 2018;3(5):85-88.

Amin FM, Aristeidou S, Baraldi C, et al. The association between migraine and physical exercise. J Headache Pain, 2018;19(1):83. Published 2018 Sep 10. 

Barber, M., & Pace, A. (2020). Exercise and Migraine Prevention: a Review of the Literature. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 24(8), 1-7.

Blau, J. N., MacGregor, E. A. Migraine and the Neck. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 34(2), 88–90.

Elinoff, V., Lynn, S. J., Ochiai, H., & Hallquist, M. (2009). The efficacy of Kiko exercises on the prevention of migraine headaches: a pilot study. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 37(3), 459–470. 

Farris, SG., Thomas, JG., Abrantes, AM., Lipton, RB., Burr, EK., Godley, FA., Roth, JL., Pavlovic, JM., Bond, DS. (2019). Anxiety sensitivity and intentional avoidance of physical activity in women with probable migraine. Cephalalgia, 2019 Oct;39(11):1465-1469.

Lampl, C., Rudolph, M., Deligianni, CI., Mitsikostas, DD. (2015). Neck pain in episodic migraine: premonitory symptom or part of the attack? J Headache Pain. 16(1):566.

La Touche, R., Fernández Pérez, J. J., Proy Acosta, A., González Campodónico, L., Martínez García, S., Adraos Juárez, D., … & Paris‐Alemany, A. (2020). Is aerobic exercise helpful in patients with migraine? A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 30(6), 965-982.

Lippi, G., Mattiuzzi, C., Sanchis-Gomar, F. (2018). Physical exercise and migraine: for or against?. Ann Transl Med, 6(10):181. 

Machado-Oliveira, L., da Silva Gauto, Y. O., de Santana Neto, F. J., da Silva, M. G., Germano-Soares, A. H., & Diniz, P. R. B. (2020). Effects of different exercise intensities on headache: a systematic review. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 99(5), 390-396.

Oliveira, A., Gringõn, D., Peres, M. (2019).  No Pain, More Gain? Affect and Adherence to Exercise in Migraine Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study. Headache Medicine, 10(20), 43-50. 

Strickland, J. C., & Smith, M. A. (2014). The anxiolytic effects of resistance exercise. Frontiers in psychology, 5, 753. 

Varkey, E., Cider, A., Carlsson, J., & Linde, M. (2011). Exercise as migraine prophylaxis: a randomized study using relaxation and topiramate as controls. Cephalalgia : An International Journal Of Headache, 31(14), 1428–1438.

Additional Resources:

Complementary Movement:

Boroujeni, M. Z., Marandi, S. M., Esfarjani, F., Sattar, M., Shaygannejad, V., & Javanmard, S. H. (2015). Yoga intervention on blood NO in female migraineurs. Advanced Biomedical Research, 4, 259. 

Jahnke, R., Larkey, L., Rogers, C., Etnier, J., & Lin, F. (2010). A comprehensive review of health benefits of qigong and tai chi. American Journal Of Health Promotion: AJHP, 24(6), e1–e25. 

Kisan, R., Sujan, M., Adoor, M., Rao, R., Nalini, A., Kutty, B. M., Chindanda Murthy, B., Raju, T., & Sathyaprabha, T. (2014). Effect of Yoga on migraine: A comprehensive study using clinical profile and cardiac autonomic functions. International Journal of Yoga, 7(2), 126–132.

Anand Kumar, Rohit Bhatia, Gautam Sharma, Dhanlika Dhanlika, Sreenivas Vishnubhatla, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Deepa Dash, Manjari Tripathi, M.V. Padma Srivastava. (2020).  Effect of yoga as add-on therapy in migraine (CONTAIN): A randomized clinical trial. Neurology, May 2020, 94 (21) e2203-e2212.

Olesen, J. (2008). The role of nitric oxide (NO) in migraine, tension-type headache and cluster headache. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 120(2), 157–171. 

Pal, G. K., Agarwal, A., Karthik, S., Pal, P., & Nanda, N. (2014). Slow yogic breathing through right and left nostril influences sympathovagal balance, heart rate variability, and cardiovascular risks in young adults. North American Journal Of Medical Sciences, 6(3), 145–151. 

Wang, Y. T., Huang, G., Duke, G., & Yang, Y. (2017). Tai Chi, Yoga, and Qigong as Mind-Body Exercises. Evidence-based Complementary And Alternative Medicine: eCAM, 2017, 8763915. 

Additional Resources:


Bakhshani, NM., Amirani, A., Amirifard, H., Shahrakipoor, M. (2015). The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Perceived Pain Intensity and Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Headache. Glob J Health Sci, 2015 Aug 6;8(4):142-51.

Bawa, FL., Mercer, SW., Atherton, RJ., Clague, F., Keen, A., Scott, NW., Bond, CM. Does mindfulness improve outcomes in patients with chronic pain? Systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Gen Pract, 2015 Jun;65(635):e387-400.

Borsook, David & Maleki, Nasim & Becerra, Lino & Mcewen, Bruce. (2012). Understanding Migraine through the Lens of Maladaptive Stress Responses: A Model Disease of Allostatic Load. Neuron. 73. 219-34. 

Buse, D. C., & Andrasik, F. (2009). Behavioral medicine for migraine. Neurologic Clinics, 27(2), 445-465.

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